Molybdenum (Mo)

Symbol Mo
Appearance Gray Metallic
Atomic Number 42
Atomic Weight 95.95 g/mol
Group 6
Period 5
Block d-block
Phase at STP solid
Melting Point 2896 K
Boiling Point 4912 K
Density 10.28 g/cm3

Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth; it is found only in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys.

Industrially, molybdenum compounds (about 14% of world production of the element) are used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications as pigments and catalysts. Molybdenum-bearing enzymes are by far the most common bacterial catalysts for breaking the chemical bond in atmospheric molecular nitrogen in the process of biological nitrogen fixation.